The gravity of the present circumstances calls for reflection on the urgency and centrality of the Sacrament of Reconciliation, together with some necessary clarifications, both for the lay faithful and for ministers called to celebrate the Sacrament.
Even in the time of COVID-19, the Sacrament of Reconciliation is administered in accordance with universal canon law and with the provisions of the Ordo Paenitentiae.
Individual confession is the ordinary way of celebrating this sacrament (cf. can. 960 CIC), while collective absolution, without prior individual confession, cannot be imparted except where there is an imminent danger of death, since there is not enough time to hear the confessions of individual penitents (cf. can. 961, § 1 CIC), or a grave necessity (cf. can. 961, § 1 CIC). 961, § 1, 2 CIC), the consideration of which is the responsibility of the diocesan bishop, taking into account the criteria agreed upon with the other members of the Episcopal Conference (cf. can. 455, § 2 CIC) and without prejudice to the necessity, for valid absolution, of votum sacramenti on the part of the individual penitent, that is to say, the purpose of confessing serious sins in due time, which at the time could not be confessed (cf. can. 962, § 1 CIC).
This Apostolic Penitentiary believes that, especially in the places most affected by the pandemic contagion and until the phenomenon recedes, the cases of serious need mentioned in can. 961, § 2 CIC above mentioned, will occur.
Any further specification is delegated by law to diocesan bishops, always taking into account the supreme good of the salvation of souls (cf. can. 1752 CIC).
Should there arise a sudden need to impart sacramental absolution to several faithful together, the priest is obliged to warn the diocesan bishop as far as possible or, if he cannot, to inform him as soon as possible (cf. Ordo Paenitentiae, n. 32).
In the present pandemic emergency, it is therefore up to the diocesan bishop to indicate to priests and penitents the prudent attentions to be adopted in the individual celebration of sacramental reconciliation, such as the celebration in a ventilated place outside the confessional, the adoption of a suitable distance, the use of protective masks, without prejudice to absolute attention to the safeguarding of the sacramental seal and the necessary discretion.
Furthermore, it is always up to the diocesan bishop to determine, in the territory of his own ecclesiastical circumscription and with regard to the level of pandemic contagion, the cases of grave necessity in which it is law- 59 ful to impart collective absolution: for example, at the entrance to hospital wards, where the infected faithful in danger of death are hospitalised, using as far as possible and with the appropriate precautions the means of amplifying the voice so that absolution may be heard.
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Pope Francis refers to numbers 1451 and 1452 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, promulgated by Saint John Paul II and drafted under the guidance of the then-Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Joseph Ratzinger. As far as “contrition” is concerned, the Catechism, citing the Council of Trent, teaches that among the acts of the penitent it “occupies first place. Contrition is sorrow of the soul and detestation for the sin committed, together with the resolution not to sin again”.
“When it arises from a love by which God is loved above all else, contrition is called ‘perfect’ (contrition of charity)”, continues the Catechism. “Such contrition remits venial sins; it also obtains forgiveness of mortal sins 53 if it includes the firm resolution to have recourse to sacramental confession as soon as possible”. Therefore, while waiting to receive absolution from a priest as soon as circumstances permit, it is possible with this act to be immediately forgiven. This too was already affirmed by the Council of Trent, in chapter 4 of the Doctrina de sacramento Paenitentiae, where it is stated that contrition accompanied by the intention of confession is able to “reconcile man with God, even before this sacrament is truly received”. This is a way to approach God’s mercy, and is open to all. It belongs to the Church’s tradition and can be useful to everyone, especially at this time to those who are near the sick in their homes and hospitals.
Numbers 1451 and 1452 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church
1451. Among the penitent’s acts contrition occupies first place. Contrition is “sorrow of the soul and detestation for the sin committed, together with the resolution not to sin again” [Council of Trent: Denz.-Schönm., 1676].
1452. When it arises from a love by which God is loved above all else, contrition is called “perfect” (contrition of charity). Such contrition remits venial sins; it also obtains forgiveness of mortal sins if it includes the firm resolution to have recourse to sacramental confession as soon as possible [cf. Council of Trent: Denz.-Schönm., 1677].
(during COVID-19 lockdown)
My Jesus, I believe that you are truly present in the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar. I love you above all things and desire to receive You into my soul. Since I cannot at this moment receive you sacramentally, come at least spiritually into my heart. I embrace You as if You were already there and unite myself wholly to You. Never permit me to be separated from You. Amen.
Saint Alphonsus Liguori
“Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer” ( Rom 12: 12). The words written by Saint Paul to the Church of Rome resonate throughout the entire history of the Church and guide the judgment of the faithful in the face of all suffering, sickness and calamity.
The present moment in which the whole of humanity, threatened by an invisible and insidious disease, which for some time now has become part of all our lives, is marked day after day by anguished fears, new uncertainties and above all widespread physical and moral suffering.
The Church, following the example of her Divine Master, has always had the care of the sick at heart. As Saint John Paul II points out, the value of human suffering is twofold: “It is supernatural because it is rooted in the divine mystery of the Redemption of the world, and it is likewise deeply human, because in it the person discovers himself, his own humanity, his own dignity, his own mission” (Apostolic Letter Salvifici Doloris , 31).
Pope Francis, too, in these recent days, has shown his paternal closeness and renewed his invitation to pray incessantly for those who are sick with the Coronavirus.
“So that all those who suffer because of COVID-19, precisely in the mystery of this suffering, may rediscover “the same redemptive suffering of Christ” ( ibid ., 30), this Apostolic Penitentiary, ex auctoritate Summi Pontificis , trusting in the word of Christ the Lord and considering with a spirit of faith the epidemic currently underway, to be lived in a spirit of personal conversion, grants the gift of Indulgences in accordance with the following disposition.
The Plenary Indulgence is granted to the faithful suffering from Coronavirus, who are subject to quarantine by order of the health authority in hospitals or in their own homes if, with a spirit detached from any sin, they unite spiritually through the media to the celebration of Holy Mass, the recitation of the Holy Rosary, to the pious practice of the Way of the Cross or other forms of devotion, or if at least they will recite the Creed, the Lord’s Prayer and a pious invocation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, offering this trial in a spirit of faith in God and charity towards their brothers and sisters, with the will to fulfil the usual conditions (sacramental confession, Eucharistic communion and prayer according to the Holy Father’s intentions), as soon as possible.
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What if I can’t participate in the sacraments?
How to receive the grace of the Lord when unable to participate physically in liturgical celebrations.
Those who are unable to make sacramental Communion with Christ by participating in the Eucharist, can express the desire to receive him in their spirit with these words that help to make spiritual communion with him:
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Health care workers, family members and all those who, following the example of the Good Samaritan, exposing themselves to the risk of contagion, care for the sick of Coronavirus according to the words of the divine Redeemer: “Greater love has no one than this: to lay down one’s life for one’s friends” ( Jn 15: 13), will obtain the same gift of the Plenary Indulgence under the same conditions.
This Apostolic Penitentiary also willingly grants a Plenary Indulgence under the same conditions on the occasion of the current world epidemic, also to those faithful who offer a visit to the Blessed Sacrament, or Eucharistic adoration, or reading the Holy Scriptures for at least half an hour, or the recitation of the Holy Rosary, or the pious exercise of the Way of the Cross, or the recitation of the Chaplet of Divine Mercy, to implore from Almighty God the end of the epidemic, relief for those who are afflicted and eternal salvation for those whom the Lord has called to Himself.
The Church prays for those who find themselves unable to receive the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick and of the Viaticum, entrusting each and every one to divine Mercy by virtue of the communion of saints and granting the faithful a Plenary Indulgence on the point of death, provided that they are duly disposed and have recited a few prayers during their lifetime (in this case the Church makes up for the three usual conditions required). For the attainment of this indulgence the use of the crucifix or the cross is recommended (cf. Enchiridion indulgentiarum, no.12).
May the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God and of the Church, Health of the Sick and Help of Christians, our Advocate, help suffering humanity, saving us from the evil of this pandemic and obtaining for us every good necessary for our salvation and sanctification.
The present Decree is valid notwithstanding any provision to the contrary.
Given in Rome, from the seat of the Apostolic Penitentiary, on 19 March 2020.
Mauro Cardinal Piacenza
People dying without chaplains, families confined to their homes and unable to reach a priest because of the Covid-19 emergency: in his homily at Santa Marta, Pope Francis mentions the Catechism and the “contrition” that obtains forgiveness from sins while one waits to go to confession.
The salus animarum, the salvation of souls, is the supreme law of the Church. This is the fundamental interpretative criterion for determining what is right. This is why the Church always seeks, in every way, to offer the possibility of reconciliation with God to all those who desire it, who seek it, who await it or who, in any case, become aware of their condition and feel the need to be welcomed, loved and forgiven. In these times of emergency due to the pandemic, with people seriously ill and isolated in intensive care wards, and families who are asked to stay at home to avoid the spread of the virus, it is useful to remind everyone of the richness of the Church’s tradition. Francis did this in his homily during Mass in Santa Marta on Friday, 20 March.
“I know that many of you, for Easter, go to confession so you can be right with God again”, said the Pope. “But, many will say to me today: ‘But, Father, where can I find a priest, a confessor, when I can’t leave my house? And I want to make peace with the Lord, I want Him to embrace me, I want my Daddy to embrace me... What can I do if I can’t find a priest?’ You do what the Catechism says”.
“It is very clear: if you cannot find a priest to whom you can confess,” explained the Pontiff, “speak with God, He is your Father, and tell Him the truth: ‘Lord, I have done this, this and this…. I am sorry”, and ask Him for forgiveness with all your heart, with the Act of Contrition, and promise Him: ‘Later I will go to confession, but forgive me now”. You will return immediately to God’s grace. You yourself can approach God’s forgiveness as the Catechism teaches us, without having a priest at hand. Think about it: this is the moment! And this is the right moment, the appropriate moment. An Act of Contrition, made well. In this way our souls will become as white as snow”.
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Consideration should be given to the need and advisability of setting up, where necessary, in agreement with the health authorities, groups of “extraordinary hospital chaplains”, also on a voluntary basis and in compliance with the norms of protection from contagion, to guarantee the necessary spiritual assistance to the sick and dying.
Where the individual faithful find themselves in the painful impossibility of receiving sacramental absolution, it should be remembered that perfect contrition, coming from the love of God, beloved above all things, expressed by a sincere request for forgiveness (that which the penitent is at present able to express) and accompanied by votum confessionis, that is, by the firm resolution to have recourse, as soon as possible, to sacramental confession, obtains forgiveness of sins, even mortal ones (cf. CCC, no. 1452).
Never before has the Church experienced thus the power of the communion of saints, raising to her Crucified and Risen Lord her vows and prayers, especially the Sacrifice of Holy Mass, celebrated daily, even without the presence of the people, by priests.
Like a good mother, the Church implores the Lord that humanity may be freed from such a scourge, invoking the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Mercy and Health of the Sick, and of her Spouse Saint Joseph, under whose patronage the Church has always walked the world.
May Mary Most Holy and Saint Joseph obtain for us abundant graces of reconciliation and salvation, in attentive listening to the Word of the Lord, which he repeats to humanity today: “Be still and know that I am God” (Ps 46: 10), “I am with you always” (Mt 28 :20).
Given in Rome, from the seat of the Apostolic Penitentiary, on March 19, 2020, Solemnity of St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Patron of the Universal Church.
Mauro Cardinal Piacenza
Reference for all above:
STRONG IN THE FACE OF TRIBULATION. The Church in Communion: A Sure Support in Time of Trial. © Copyright 2020 – Libreria Editrice Vaticana. ISBN 978-88-266-0420-6. pg:49-61. Link: https://www.vaticannews.va/content/dam/lev/forti-nella-tribolazione/pdf/eng/strong-in-tribulation.-20042020.pdf
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Decree of the Apostolic Penitentiary on the granting of special Indulgences to the faithful in the current pandemic
Note from the Apostolic Penitentiary on the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the current pandemic
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Forgiveness without a priest? The Pope reminds us how to receive it.
The gift of special Indulgences is granted to the faithful suffering from COVID19 disease, commonly known as Coronavirus, as well as to health care workers, family members and all those who in any capacity, including through prayer, care for them.